Management is an integral role in any business or organization, the manager’s position is to get the most out of the resources at hand, these resources can include people, finance and material. The objective for the manager is to plan, organize and implement those resources in a way which will achieve the best results for the company. In this article we are going to discuss the role of a manager, the different levels of management and the types of management. The type of management is crucial, implementing the correct style for the organization can be the thin line between success and failure.
Different Types of Management
In a democratic style, management will make decisions which are agreed upon by the majority of employees, therefore the workers feel involved and important to the organization. By involving the employees, management will be better informed to make the right decisions and harvest new ideas from the people who are involved in the day to day business of the company.
An autocratic manager cuts an imposing and knowledgeable figure; decisions are made quickly and forcefully without involvement from anyone else. Other people’s judgements and suggestions are usually neither listened to nor considered. A truly ‘my way or the highway’ attitude towards the employees.
The Laissez-faire management will take a back seat role in the company, providing guidance when needed, the employees are allowed to let their own ideas and creativity flourish in their specific areas. The manager is looked upon as more of a mentor than a leader.
A paternalistic type of management encourages feedback from the workers to the leaders, essentially to maintain good morale and loyalty. It is the manager who will make the final decision, but the leader will listen to ideas and suggestions from the workers. Decisions are usually made in the best interest of the employees and business.
Different Management Levels
Top-level managers are the big bosses, CEO’s, Chief Executives and directors. They are responsible for overseeing and organizing the entire organization.
Examples of middle-level managers would be area supervisors and department managers. They are answerable to the top-level managers. The role of middle management is to execute and monitor organizational plans handed down from the top-level managers.
Low-level managers are usually responsible for general supervision and motivation; examples of low-level managers are supervisors and sector leaders. Low-level managers are accountable to the middle-level managers.
Choosing the correct management style can be very tricky, but the manager ultimately has to be flexible, certain situations call for a certain styles of management. Being able to adapt to their surroundings and apply these theories can be the makings of a successful manager. Each style of management have their advantages and disadvantages, sticking to one rigid management model can lead to those disadvantages escalating, leading to low staff morale, decreasing confidence in the manager and eventually less success.
In academic programs offered at tertiary institutions, management can be found under administration and this management has been regrouped based on several categories or functions and purposes of a corporation. We have supply chain manage, advertising and entrepreneurship, human resource etc. We generally classify management in a work place as either personnel management or human resource management.
There are 4 phases of Human Resource Management
First Phase: Administration - from 1940's to 1970's focusing on labor welfare
& partly administration.originally called Welfare Secretary
Second Phase: Personnel - 1970's to late 1980's focusing on personnel management i.e. punctuality, leaves payroll etc.
Third Phase: Human Resources - Early 1990's till present. In this era technical revolution replaced manual workers by knowledge workers. Previously labor was treated as a "cost". But now labor is a "resource". When personnel were treated as a cost, they were increased when production increased and were released when production decreased. But treating labor as a resource, one maximizes yield from the resource.
Fourth Phase: Talent Management Now in future the main challenge of an HR Manager would be identifying and retaining the creative people.